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Immuno-Modulation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Inflammation

December 23 2020

Lab: Hitoshi Takizawa

Authors: Maiko Sezaki†, Yoshikazu Hayashi†, Yuxin Wang, Alban Johansson, Terumasa Umemoto and Hitoshi Takizawa* (†equal contribution, *corresponding author)

Title: Immuno-Modulation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Inflammation

Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11, pp. 1-16

doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.585367

URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.585367/full

Lifelong blood production is maintained by bone marrow (BM)-residing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are defined by two special properties: multipotency and self-renewal. Since dysregulation of either may lead to a differentiation block or extensive proliferation causing dysplasia or neoplasia, the genomic integrity and cellular function of HSCs must be tightly controlled and preserved by cell-intrinsic programs and cell-extrinsic environmental factors of the BM. The BM had been long regarded an immune-privileged organ shielded from immune insults and inflammation, and was thereby assumed to provide HSCs and immune cells with a protective environment to ensure blood and immune homeostasis. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that hemato-immune challenges such as autoimmunity, inflammation or infection elicit a broad spectrum of immunological reactions in the BM, and in turn, influence the function of HSCs and BM environmental cells. Moreover, in analogy with the emerging concept of "trained immunity", certain infection-associated stimuli are able to train HSCs and progenitors to produce mature immune cells with enhanced responsiveness to subsequent challenges, and in some cases, form an inflammatory or infectious memory in HSCs themselves. In this review, we will introduce recent findings on HSC and hematopoietic regulation upon exposure to various hemato-immune stimuli and discuss how these challenges can elicit either beneficial or detrimental outcomes on HSCs and the hemato-immune system, as well as their relevance to aging and hematologic malignancies.